What Are the Different Types of Gemstones That Exist Today?

Many rings, necklaces, and other jewellery pieces are made of gemstones. But did you know that for centuries, jewellery was made of gemstones? Even in ancient times, people’s entire jewellery collection may have been made of gemstones!

But what are the different types of gemstones, and why should you choose them over other materials when shopping for jewellery?

This article explores the different types of gemstones available and tips on choosing the suitable stone for yourself or a loved one’s next jewellery purchase.

Common Types of Gemstones

Gemstones are minerals that are used in jewellery and other ornamental items. They are typically rarer than other minerals and have a higher value. Here are some of the common types of gemstones:


Diamonds are made up of carbon, and they are the hardest known substance on Earth. Diamonds are usually transparent but can also be yellow, blue, or black. The vast majority of diamonds are found in Africa, but they can also be found in other parts of the world, such as Australia, Russia, and Canada.

To avoid being taken advantage of, it is essential to conduct your research and use reliable resources like to learn about diamonds and their prices.


Sapphires and rubies both include the mineral corundum. Sapphires are blue, while rubies are red. Pink, yellow, and green sapphires also exist. In addition to jewellery, sapphires are used in several other applications, such as watch crystals and optical components.


Rubies are a type of red corundum and are often used in jewellery. They are also durable, making them perfect for engagement rings and other unique jewellery pieces. While rubies are typically red, they can also be pink, orange, or purple.

Rare Types of Gemstones

There are a great many different types of gemstones that exist in the world today. Some of these gemstones are rarer than others and, as such, can be pretty valuable. Here are some of the rarest gemstones:


Tanzanite is a type of gemstone that is blue and is found in Tanzania. It is a popular gemstone for jewellery and is used in many different pieces.

Tanzanite is a relatively new gemstone, only discovered in 1967, and is named after its country of origin. It has quickly become popular due to its unique colour and beauty.

Black Opal

This rare gemstone is prized for its hue and characteristics. Deep, rich black opals are the most precious. These rare jewels are expensive.

Opals are usually placed as cabochons. Black opals offer a striking look to rings and pendants.


Taaffeite is a violet-blue or red-blue mineral that is found only in a few deposits around the world. It is composed of a mineral called spinel and is interesting because it is one of the few best gemstones that is not classified as a crystal.

Taaffeite is durable and can be cut and polished into a beautiful gemstone. It is not as well-known as some other gems but is undoubtedly a gemstone worth learning.

Precious Gemstones

Many different gemstones exist today, but only a few are considered precious. They are also costly because of their beauty. Here are some of the most precious gems:


This gemstone is typically yellow, green, or brown. It is known for its durability and is often used in making engagement rings. Chrysoberyl is also the birthstone for April.


Emerald is a green variety of the mineral beryl and is prized for its beautiful green colour. Emerald typically ranges in colour from light green to deep green, and trace amounts of chromium and vanadium cause the colour.

Emerald is the birthstone for May and is also associated with the zodiac sign of Cancer. Emerald is found in many countries, including Colombia, Brazil, and Zambia.

Khooni Neelam

Khooni Neelam is a type of gemstone that is found in India. It is a dark blue stone that is said to have magical powers. The stone is believed to be able to protect the wearer from evil spirits and bring them good luck. Khooni Neelam is one of the rare gemstones and is very expensive.

Semi-Precious Gemstones

Precious stones are typically rare and more expensive than semi-precious stones. However, semi-precious stones are still beautiful and unique and can be found in various colours.


Amber is a type of gemstone formed from the fossilized resin of ancient trees. It is typically golden or reddish-brown and has a smooth, glossy surface. Amber is used in various jewellery designs and is also famous for collecting.


Amethyst is a variety of quartz that is violet in colour. It is the most popular purple gemstone and is used in many different types of jewellery.


Ammolite is a natural gemstone that looks a lot like opal. It is mainly found on North America’s east side of the Rocky Mountains. It is made from fossilized ammonite shells, mostly made of aragonite, the same mineral that makes up nacre and has a microstructure that comes from the shell.

Artificial or Synthetic Gemstones

Most gemstones are natural, meaning they are formed by nature. However, there is a growing market for synthetic gemstones. These gemstones are created in a lab and often have the same chemical composition as natural gemstones.

Synthetic gemstones can be made in various colours and often have more brilliance than their natural counterparts. Here are some synthetic gemstones that some laboratories produced during the twentieth century.


Spinel was accidentally discovered when scientists were trying to create a flame-fusion blue synthetic sapphire. It can recreate practically all colours except purple. The blue synthetic spinel sapphire imitator seems more authentic.


Synthetic alexandrite is a crystalline form of chrysoberyl made in a lab. It is made of beryllium aluminium oxide. The name is also sometimes used imprecisely for corundum grown in a lab to look like alexandrite but has a different mineral makeup.

Lapis Lazuli

Gilson Company made some synthetic turquoise jewellery in the 1980s. Sky blue with grey spider webbing. Ceramic product with turquoise-like composition.

Know the Different Gemstones

Gemstones are a beautiful way to add extra flair to your everyday look. With so many different types of gemstones available on the market today, it can be challenging to choose which stones are suitable for you.

However, by researching the different types of gemstones, you can easily find the perfect gems to complement your style.

If you found this article about gemstones fascinating, check out some of our other great content.

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